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Majjhima Nikāya

MN38: Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhaya Sutta — The Longer Discourse on the Ending of Craving

1So I have heard. At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.

Now at that time a mendicant called Sāti, the fisherman’s son, had the following harmful misconception: “As I understand the Buddha’s teachings, it is this very same consciousness that roams and transmigrates, not another.”

Several mendicants heard about this. They went up to Sāti and said to him: “Is it really true, Reverend Sāti, that you have such a harmful misconception: ‘As I understand the Buddha’s teachings, it is this very same consciousness that roams and transmigrates, not another’?”

“Absolutely, reverends. As I understand the Buddha’s teachings, it is this very same consciousness that roams and transmigrates, not another.”

Then, wishing to dissuade Sāti from his view, the mendicants pursued, pressed, and grilled him: “Don’t say that, Sāti! Don’t misrepresent the Buddha, for misrepresentation of the Buddha is not good. And the Buddha would not say that. In many ways the Buddha has said that consciousness is dependently originated, since consciousness does not arise without a cause.”

But even though the mendicants pressed him in this way, Sāti obstinately stuck to his misconception and insisted on stating it.


2When they weren’t able to dissuade Sāti from his view, the mendicants went to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and told him what had happened.


3So the Buddha said to a certain monk: “Please, monk, in my name tell the mendicant Sāti that the teacher summons him.”

“Yes, sir,” that monk replied. He went to Sāti and said to him: “Reverend Sāti, the teacher summons you.”

“Yes, reverend,” Sāti replied. He went to the Buddha, bowed, and sat down to one side. The Buddha said to him: “Is it really true, Sāti, that you have such a harmful misconception: ‘As I understand the Buddha’s teachings, it is this very same consciousness that roams and transmigrates, not another’?”

“Absolutely, sir. As I understand the Buddha’s teachings, it is this very same consciousness that roams and transmigrates, not another.”


“Sāti, what is that consciousness?”

“Sir, it is he who speaks and feels and experiences the results of good and bad deeds in all the different realms.”

“Silly man, who on earth have you ever known me to teach in that way? Haven’t I said in many ways that consciousness is dependently originated, since consciousness does not arise without a cause? But still you misrepresent me by your wrong grasp, harm yourself, and make much bad karma. This will be for your lasting harm and suffering.”


4Then the Buddha said to the mendicants: “What do you think, mendicants? Has this mendicant Sāti kindled even a spark of wisdom in this teaching and training?”

“How could that be, sir? No, sir.”


When this was said, Sāti sat silent, embarrassed, shoulders drooping, downcast, depressed, with nothing to say. Knowing this, the Buddha said: “Silly man, you will be known by your own harmful misconception. I’ll question the mendicants about this.”


Then the Buddha said to the mendicants: “Mendicants, do you understand my teachings as Sāti does, when he misrepresents me by his wrong grasp, harms himself, and makes much bad karma?”

“No, sir. For in many ways the Buddha has told us that consciousness is dependently originated, since consciousness does not arise without a cause.”

“Good, good, mendicants! It’s good that you understand my teaching like this. For in many ways I have told you that consciousness is dependently originated, since consciousness does not arise without a cause. But still this Sāti misrepresents me by his wrong grasp, harms himself, and makes much bad karma. This will be for his lasting harm and suffering.


5Consciousness is reckoned according to the specific conditions dependent upon which it arises. Consciousness that arises dependent on the eye and sights is reckoned as eye consciousness. Consciousness that arises dependent on the ear and sounds is reckoned as ear consciousness. Consciousness that arises dependent on the nose and smells is reckoned as nose consciousness. Consciousness that arises dependent on the tongue and tastes is reckoned as tongue consciousness. Consciousness that arises dependent on the body and touches is reckoned as body consciousness. Consciousness that arises dependent on the mind and thoughts is reckoned as mind consciousness.


6It’s like fire, which is reckoned according to the specific conditions dependent upon which it burns. A fire that burns dependent on logs is reckoned as a log fire. A fire that burns dependent on twigs is reckoned as a twig fire. A fire that burns dependent on grass is reckoned as a grass fire. A fire that burns dependent on cow-dung is reckoned as a cow-dung fire. A fire that burns dependent on husks is reckoned as a husk fire. A fire that burns dependent on rubbish is reckoned as a rubbish fire.

In the same way, consciousness is reckoned according to the specific conditions dependent upon which it arises. …


7Mendicants, do you see that this has come to be?”

8“Yes, sir.”

9“Do you see that it originated with that as fuel?”

10“Yes, sir.”

11“Do you see that when that fuel ceases, what has come to be is liable to cease?”

12“Yes, sir.”

13“Does doubt arise when you’re uncertain whether or not this has come to be?”

14“Yes, sir.”

15“Does doubt arise when you’re uncertain whether or not this has originated with that as fuel?”

16“Yes, sir.”


17“Does doubt arise when you’re uncertain whether or not when that fuel ceases, what has come to be is liable to cease?”

18“Yes, sir.”

19“Is doubt given up in someone who truly sees with right understanding that this has come to be?”

20“Yes, sir.”

21“Is doubt given up in someone who truly sees with right understanding that this has originated with that as fuel?”

22“Yes, sir.”

23“Is doubt given up in someone who truly sees with right understanding that when that fuel ceases, what has come to be is liable to cease?”

24“Yes, sir.”

25“Are you free of doubt as to whether this has come to be?”

26“Yes, sir.”

27“Are you free of doubt as to whether this has originated with that as fuel?”

28“Yes, sir.”

29“Are you free of doubt as to whether when that fuel ceases, what has come to be is liable to cease?”

30“Yes, sir.”

31“Have you truly seen clearly with right understanding that this has come to be?”

32“Yes, sir.”

33“Have you truly seen clearly with right understanding that this has originated with that as fuel?”

34“Yes, sir.”


35“Have you truly seen clearly with right understanding that when that fuel ceases, what has come to be is liable to cease?”

36“Yes, sir.”


37“Pure and bright as this view is, mendicants, if you cherish it, fancy it, treasure it, and treat it as your own, would you be understanding how the Dhamma is similar to a raft: for crossing over, not for holding on?”

38“No, sir.”

39“Pure and bright as this view is, mendicants, if you don’t cherish it, fancy it, treasure it, and treat it as your own, would you be understanding how the Dhamma is similar to a raft: for crossing over, not for holding on?”

40“Yes, sir.”


41“Mendicants, there are these four fuels. They maintain sentient beings that have been born and help those that are about to be born. What four? Solid food, whether coarse or fine; contact is the second, mental intention the third, and consciousness the fourth.


42What is the source, origin, birthplace, and root of these four fuels? Craving.

43And what is the source of craving? Feeling.

44And what is the source of feeling? Contact.

45And what is the source of contact? The six sense fields.

46And what is the source of the six sense fields? Name and form.

47And what is the source of name and form? Consciousness.

48And what is the source of consciousness? Choices.

49And what is the source of choices? Ignorance.


50So, ignorance is a condition for choices. Choices are a condition for consciousness. Consciousness is a condition for name and form. Name and form are conditions for the six sense fields. The six sense fields are conditions for contact. Contact is a condition for feeling. Feeling is a condition for craving. Craving is a condition for grasping. Grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be. That is how this entire mass of suffering originates.


51-60‘Rebirth is a condition for old age and death.’ That’s what I said. Is that how you see this or not?”

“That’s how we see it.”

“‘Continued existence is a condition for rebirth.’ …


61‘Ignorance is a condition for choices.’ That’s what I said. Is that how you see this or not?”

“That’s how we see it.”


62“Good, mendicants! So both you and I say this. When this exists, that is; due to the arising of this, that arises. That is: Ignorance is a condition for choices. Choices are a condition for consciousness. Consciousness is a condition for name and form. Name and form are conditions for the six sense fields. The six sense fields are conditions for contact. Contact is a condition for feeling. Feeling is a condition for craving. Craving is a condition for grasping. Grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be. That is how this entire mass of suffering originates.


63When ignorance fades away and ceases with nothing left over, choices cease. When choices cease, consciousness ceases. When consciousness ceases, name and form cease. When name and form cease, the six sense fields cease. When the six sense fields cease, contact ceases. When contact ceases, feeling ceases. When feeling ceases, craving ceases. When craving ceases, grasping ceases. When grasping ceases, continued existence ceases. When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases. When rebirth ceases, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress cease. That is how this entire mass of suffering ceases.


64‘When rebirth ceases, old age and death cease.’ That’s what I said. Is that how you see this or not?”

“That’s how we see it.”


65-72‘When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases.’ …


73‘When ignorance ceases, choices cease.’ That’s what I said. Is that how you see this or not?”

“That’s how we see it.”


74“Good, mendicants! So both you and I say this. When this doesn’t exist, that is not; due to the cessation of this, that ceases. That is: When ignorance ceases, choices cease. When choices cease, consciousness ceases. When consciousness ceases, name and form cease. When name and form cease, the six sense fields cease. When the six sense fields cease, contact ceases. When contact ceases, feeling ceases. When feeling ceases, craving ceases. When craving ceases, grasping ceases. When grasping ceases, continued existence ceases. When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases. When rebirth ceases, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress cease. That is how this entire mass of suffering ceases.


75Knowing and seeing in this way, mendicants, would you turn back to the past, thinking, ‘Did we exist in the past? Did we not exist in the past? What were we in the past? How were we in the past? After being what, what did we become in the past?’?”

76“No, sir.”


77“Knowing and seeing in this way, mendicants, would you turn forward to the future, thinking, ‘Will we exist in the future? Will we not exist in the future? What will we be in the future? How will we be in the future? After being what, what will we become in the future?’?”

78“No, sir.”

79“Knowing and seeing in this way, mendicants, would you be undecided about the present, thinking, ‘Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? This sentient being — where did it come from? And where will it go?’?”


80“No, sir.”

81“Knowing and seeing in this way, would you say, ‘Our teacher is respected. We speak like this out of respect for our teacher.’?”

82“No, sir.”


83“Knowing and seeing in this way, would you say, ‘Our ascetic says this. It’s only because of him that we say this’?”

84“No, sir.”

85“Knowing and seeing in this way, would you acknowledge another teacher?”


86“No, sir.”

87“Knowing and seeing in this way, would you believe that the observances and noisy, superstitious rites of the various ascetics and brahmins are the most important things?”

88“No, sir.”


89“Are you not speaking only of what you have known and seen and realized for yourselves?”

90“Yes, sir.”


91“Good, mendicants! You have been guided by me with this teaching that’s visible in this very life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves. For when I said that this teaching is visible in this very life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves, this is what I was referring to.

92Mendicants, when three things come together an embryo is conceived. In a case where the mother and father come together, but the mother is not in the fertile part of her menstrual cycle, and the spirit being reborn is not present, the embryo is not conceived. In a case where the mother and father come together, the mother is in the fertile part of her menstrual cycle, but the spirit being reborn is not present, the embryo is not conceived. But when these three things come together — the mother and father come together, the mother is in the fertile part of her menstrual cycle, and the spirit being reborn is present — an embryo is conceived.

The mother nurtures the embryo in her womb for nine or ten months at great risk to her heavy burden. When nine or ten months have passed, the mother gives birth at great risk to her heavy burden. When the infant is born she nourishes it with her own blood. For mother’s milk is regarded as blood in the training of the noble one.

That boy grows up and his faculties mature. He accordingly plays childish games such as toy plows, tipcat, somersaults, pinwheels, toy measures, toy carts, and toy bows.


93That boy grows up and his faculties mature further. He accordingly amuses himself, supplied and provided with the five kinds of sensual stimulation. Sights known by the eye that are likable, desirable, agreeable, pleasant, sensual, and arousing.

Sounds known by the ear …

Smells known by the nose …

Tastes known by the tongue …

Touches known by the body that are likable, desirable, agreeable, pleasant, sensual, and arousing.


94When they see a sight with their eyes, if it’s pleasant they desire it, but if it’s unpleasant they dislike it. They live with mindfulness of the body unestablished and their heart restricted. And they don’t truly understand the freedom of heart and freedom by wisdom where those arisen bad, unskillful qualities cease without anything left over.

Being so full of favoring and opposing, when they experience any kind of feeling — pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral — they approve, welcome, and keep clinging to it. This gives rise to relishing. Relishing feelings is grasping. Their grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be. That is how this entire mass of suffering originates.

When they hear a sound with their ears …

When they smell an odor with their nose …

When they taste a flavor with their tongue …

When they feel a touch with their body …

When they know a thought with their mind, if it’s pleasant they desire it, but if it’s unpleasant they dislike it. They live with mindfulness of the body unestablished and their heart restricted. And they don’t truly understand the freedom of heart and freedom by wisdom where those arisen bad, unskillful qualities cease without anything left over.

Being so full of favoring and opposing, when they experience any kind of feeling — pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral — they approve, welcome, and keep clinging to it. This gives rise to relishing. Relishing feelings is grasping. Their grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be. That is how this entire mass of suffering originates.


95But consider when a Realized One arises in the world, perfected, a fully awakened Buddha, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, holy, knower of the world, supreme guide for those who wish to train, teacher of gods and humans, awakened, blessed. He has realized with his own insight this world — with its gods, Māras and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, gods and humans — and he makes it known to others. He proclaims a teaching that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing. He reveals an entirely full and pure spiritual life.

A householder hears that teaching, or a householder’s child, or someone reborn in some good family. They gain faith in the Realized One, and reflect, ‘Living in a house is cramped and dirty, but the life of one gone forth is wide open. It’s not easy for someone living at home to lead the spiritual life utterly full and pure, like a polished shell. Why don’t I cut off my hair and beard, dress in ocher robes, and go forth from lay life to homelessness?’ After some time they give up a large or small fortune, and a large or small family circle. They shave off hair and beard, dress in ocher robes, and go forth from the lay life to homelessness.

96Once they’ve gone forth, they take up the training and livelihood of the mendicants. They give up killing living creatures, renouncing the rod and the sword. They’re scrupulous and kind, living full of compassion for all living beings.

97They give up stealing. They take only what’s given, and expect only what’s given. They keep themselves clean by not thieving.

98They give up unchastity. They are celibate, set apart, avoiding the common practice of sex.

99They give up lying. They speak the truth and stick to the truth. They’re honest and trustworthy, and don’t trick the world with their words.

100They give up divisive speech. They don’t repeat in one place what they heard in another so as to divide people against each other. Instead, they reconcile those who are divided, supporting unity, delighting in harmony, loving harmony, speaking words that promote harmony.

101They give up harsh speech. They speak in a way that’s mellow, pleasing to the ear, lovely, going to the heart, polite, likable and agreeable to the people.

102They give up talking nonsense. Their words are timely, true, and meaningful, in line with the teaching and training. They say things at the right time which are valuable, reasonable, succinct, and beneficial.


103They avoid injuring plants and seeds. They eat in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and food at the wrong time. They avoid dancing, singing, music, and seeing shows. They avoid beautifying and adorning themselves with garlands, perfumes, and makeup. They avoid high and luxurious beds. They avoid receiving gold and money, raw grains, raw meat, women and girls, male and female bondservants, goats and sheep, chickens and pigs, elephants, cows, horses, and mares, and fields and land. They avoid running errands and messages; buying and selling; falsifying weights, metals, or measures; bribery, fraud, cheating, and duplicity; mutilation, murder, abduction, banditry, plunder, and violence.

104They’re content with robes to look after the body and alms-food to look after the belly. Wherever they go, they set out taking only these things. They’re like a bird: wherever it flies, wings are its only burden. In the same way, a mendicant is content with robes to look after the body and alms-food to look after the belly. Wherever they go, they set out taking only these things. When they have this entire spectrum of noble ethics, they experience a blameless happiness inside themselves.


105When they see a sight with their eyes, they don’t get caught up in the features and details. If the faculty of sight were left unrestrained, bad unskillful qualities of desire and aversion would become overwhelming. For this reason, they practice restraint, protecting the faculty of sight, and achieving its restraint.

When they hear a sound with their ears …

When they smell an odor with their nose …

When they taste a flavor with their tongue …

When they feel a touch with their body …

When they know a thought with their mind, they don’t get caught up in the features and details. If the faculty of mind were left unrestrained, bad unskillful qualities of desire and aversion would become overwhelming. For this reason, they practice restraint, protecting the faculty of mind, and achieving its restraint. When they have this noble sense restraint, they experience an unsullied bliss inside themselves.


106They act with situational awareness when going out and coming back; when looking ahead and aside; when bending and extending the limbs; when bearing the outer robe, bowl and robes; when eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting; when urinating and defecating; when walking, standing, sitting, sleeping, waking, speaking, and keeping silent.

107When they have this noble spectrum of ethics, this noble sense restraint, and this noble mindfulness and situational awareness, they frequent a secluded lodging — a wilderness, the root of a tree, a hill, a ravine, a mountain cave, a charnel ground, a forest, the open air, a heap of straw.

After the meal, they return from alms-round, sit down cross-legged with their body straight, and establish mindfulness right there. Giving up desire for the world, they meditate with a heart rid of desire, cleansing the mind of desire. Giving up ill will and malevolence, they meditate with a mind rid of ill will, full of compassion for all living beings, cleansing the mind of ill will. Giving up dullness and drowsiness, they meditate with a mind rid of dullness and drowsiness, perceiving light, mindful and aware, cleansing the mind of dullness and drowsiness. Giving up restlessness and remorse, they meditate without restlessness, their mind peaceful inside, cleansing the mind of restlessness and remorse. Giving up doubt, they meditate having gone beyond doubt, not undecided about skillful qualities, cleansing the mind of doubt.


108They give up these five hindrances, corruptions of the heart that weaken wisdom. Then, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful qualities, they enter and remain in the first absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of seclusion, while placing the mind and keeping it connected. Furthermore, as the placing of the mind and keeping it connected are stilled, a mendicant enters and remains in the second absorption … third absorption … fourth absorption.

109When they see a sight with their eyes, if it’s pleasant they don’t desire it, and if it’s unpleasant they don’t dislike it. They live with mindfulness of the body established and a limitless heart. And they truly understand the freedom of heart and freedom by wisdom where those arisen bad, unskillful qualities cease without anything left over.

Having given up favoring and opposing, when they experience any kind of feeling — pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral — they don’t approve, welcome, or keep clinging to it. As a result, relishing of feelings ceases. When their relishing ceases, grasping ceases. When grasping ceases, continued existence ceases. When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases. When rebirth ceases, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress cease.

That is how this entire mass of suffering ceases.


When they hear a sound with their ears …

When they smell an odor with their nose …

When they taste a flavor with their tongue …

When they feel a touch with their body …

When they know a thought with their mind, if it’s pleasant they don’t desire it, and if it’s unpleasant they don’t dislike it. They live with mindfulness of the body established and a limitless heart. And they truly understand the freedom of heart and freedom by wisdom where those arisen bad, unskillful qualities cease without anything left over.

Having given up favoring and opposing, when they experience any kind of feeling — pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral — they don’t approve, welcome, or keep clinging to it. As a result, relishing of feelings ceases. When their relishing ceases, grasping ceases. When grasping ceases, continued existence ceases. When continued existence ceases, rebirth ceases. When rebirth ceases, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress cease.

That is how this entire mass of suffering ceases.

Mendicants, you should memorize that brief statement on freedom through the ending of craving. But the mendicant Sāti, the fisherman’s son, is caught in a vast net of craving, a tangle of craving.”


110That is what the Buddha said. Satisfied, the mendicants were happy with what the Buddha said.

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

Tena kho pana samayena sātissa nāma bhikkhuno kevaṭṭaputtassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ hoti: "Tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati anaññan"ti.

Assosuṁ kho sambahulā bhikkhū: "sātissa kira nāma bhikkhuno kevaṭṭaputtassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’"ti.

Atha kho te bhikkhū yena sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etadavocuṁ: "Saccaṁ kira te, āvuso sāti, evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’"ti?

"Evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan"ti. Atha kho te bhikkhū sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetukāmā samanuyuñjanti samanugāhanti samanubhāsanti: "mā evaṁ, āvuso sāti, avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Anekapariyāyenāvuso sāti, paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ vuttaṁ bhagavatā, aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavo"ti.

Evampi kho sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto tehi bhikkhūhi samanuyuñjiyamāno samanugāhiyamāno samanubhāsiyamāno tadeva pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ thāmasā parāmāsā abhinivissa voharati: "evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati anaññan"ti.


2Yato kho te bhikkhū nāsakkhiṁsu sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetuṁ, atha kho te bhikkhū yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho te bhikkhū bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "sātissa nāma, bhante, bhikkhuno kevaṭṭaputtassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’ti. Assumha kho mayaṁ, bhante, sātissa kira nāma bhikkhuno kevaṭṭaputtassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’ti. Atha kho mayaṁ, bhante, yena sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto tenupasaṅkamimha; upasaṅkamitvā sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etadavocumha: ‘saccaṁ kira te, āvuso sāti, evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: "Tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan"’ti? Evaṁ vutte, bhante, sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto amhe etadavoca: ‘evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’ti. Atha kho mayaṁ, bhante, sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetukāmā samanuyuñjimha samanugāhimha samanubhāsimha: ‘mā evaṁ, āvuso sāti, avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Anekapariyāyenāvuso sāti, paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ vuttaṁ bhagavatā, aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavo’ti. Evampi kho, bhante, sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto amhehi samanuyuñjiyamāno samanugāhiyamāno samanubhāsiyamāno tadeva pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ thāmasā parāmasā abhinivissa voharati: ‘evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’ti. Yato kho mayaṁ, bhante, nāsakkhimha sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetuṁ, atha mayaṁ etamatthaṁ bhagavato ārocemā"ti.


3Atha kho bhagavā aññataraṁ bhikkhuṁ āmantesi: "ehi tvaṁ bhikkhu, mama vacanena sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ āmantehi: ‘satthā taṁ, āvuso sāti, āmantetī’"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho so bhikkhu bhagavato paṭissutvā yena sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etadavoca: "satthā taṁ, āvuso sāti, āmantetī"ti.

"Evamāvuso"ti kho sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto tassa bhikkhuno paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ bhagavā etadavoca: "Saccaṁ kira te, sāti, evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan’"ti?

"Evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, bhante, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā tadevidaṁ viññāṇaṁ sandhāvati saṁsarati, anaññan"ti.


"Katamaṁ taṁ, sāti, viññāṇan"ti?

"Yvāyaṁ, bhante, vado vedeyyo tatra tatra kalyāṇapāpakānaṁ kammānaṁ vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedetī"ti.

"Kassa nu kho nāma tvaṁ, moghapurisa, mayā evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāsi? Nanu mayā, moghapurisa, anekapariyāyena paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ vuttaṁ, aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavoti? Atha ca pana tvaṁ, moghapurisa, attanā duggahitena amhe ceva abbhācikkhasi, attānañca khaṇasi, bahuñca apuññaṁ pasavasi. Tañhi te, moghapurisa, bhavissati dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāyā"ti.


4Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nāyaṁ sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto usmīkatopi imasmiṁ dhammavinaye"ti?

"Kiñhi siyā, bhante? No hetaṁ, bhante"ti.


Evaṁ vutte, sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto tuṇhībhūto maṅkubhūto pattakkhandho adhomukho pajjhāyanto appaṭibhāno nisīdi.

Atha kho bhagavā sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ maṅkubhūtaṁ pattakkhandhaṁ adhomukhaṁ pajjhāyantaṁ appaṭibhānaṁ viditvā sātiṁ bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ etadavoca: "paññāyissasi kho tvaṁ, moghapurisa, etena sakena pāpakena diṭṭhigatena. Idhāhaṁ bhikkhū paṭipucchissāmī"ti.


Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "tumhepi me, bhikkhave, evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānātha yathāyaṁ sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto attanā duggahitena amhe ceva abbhācikkhati, attānañca khaṇati, bahuñca apuññaṁ pasavatī"ti?

"No hetaṁ, bhante. Anekapariyāyena hi no, bhante, paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ vuttaṁ bhagavatā, aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavo"ti.

"Sādhu sādhu, bhikkhave. Sādhu kho me tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānātha. Anekapariyāyena hi vo, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppannaṁ viññāṇaṁ vuttaṁ mayā, aññatra paccayā natthi viññāṇassa sambhavo"ti. Atha ca panāyaṁ sāti bhikkhu kevaṭṭaputto attanā duggahitena amhe ceva abbhācikkhati, attānañca khaṇati, bahuñca apuññaṁ pasavati. Tañhi tassa moghapurisassa bhavissati dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāya.


5"Yaṁ yadeva, bhikkhave, paccayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, tena teneva viññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati. Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, cakkhuviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; sotañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, sotaviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; ghānañca paṭicca gandhe ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, ghānaviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; jivhañca paṭicca rase ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, jivhāviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; kāyañca paṭicca phoṭṭhabbe ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, kāyaviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, manoviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati.


6Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, yaṁ yadeva paccayaṁ paṭicca aggi jalati tena teneva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati. Kaṭṭhañca paṭicca aggi jalati, kaṭṭhaggitveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; sakalikañca paṭicca aggi jalati, sakalikaggitveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; tiṇañca paṭicca aggi jalati, tiṇaggitveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; gomayañca paṭicca aggi jalati, gomayaggitveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; thusañca paṭicca aggi jalati, thusaggitveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; saṅkārañca paṭicca aggi jalati, saṅkāraggitveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati.

Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yaṁ yadeva paccayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, tena teneva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati. Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, cakkhuviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati; sotañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, sotaviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati, ghānañca paṭicca gandhe ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, ghānaviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati, jivhañca paṭicca rase ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, jivhāviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati. Kāyañca paṭicca phoṭṭhabbe ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, kāyaviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati. Manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati viññāṇaṁ, manoviññāṇantveva saṅkhyaṁ gacchati.


7Bhūtamidanti, bhikkhave, passathā"ti?

8"Evaṁ, bhante".

9"Tadāhārasambhavanti, bhikkhave, passathā"ti?

10"Evaṁ, bhante".

11"Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ, taṁ nirodhadhammanti, bhikkhave, passathā"ti?

12"Evaṁ, bhante".

13"Bhūtamidaṁ nossūti, bhikkhave, kaṅkhato uppajjati vicikicchā"ti?

14"Evaṁ, bhante".

15"Tadāhārasambhavaṁ nossūti, bhikkhave, kaṅkhato uppajjati vicikicchā"ti?

16"Evaṁ, bhante".


17"Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ, taṁ nirodhadhammaṁ nossūti, bhikkhave, kaṅkhato uppajjati vicikicchā"ti?

18"Evaṁ, bhante".

19"Bhūtamidanti, bhikkhave, yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato yā vicikicchā sā pahīyatī"ti?

20"Evaṁ, bhante".

21"Tadāhārasambhavanti, bhikkhave, yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato yā vicikicchā sā pahīyatī"ti?

22"Evaṁ, bhante".

23"Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ, taṁ nirodhadhammanti, bhikkhave, yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato yā vicikicchā sā pahīyatī"ti?

24"Evaṁ, bhante".

25"Bhūtamidanti, bhikkhave, itipi vo ettha nibbicikicchā"ti?

26"Evaṁ, bhante".

27"Tadāhārasambhavanti, bhikkhave, itipi vo ettha nibbicikicchā"ti?

28"Evaṁ, bhante".

29"Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ nirodhadhammanti, bhikkhave, itipi vo ettha nibbicikicchā"ti?

30"Evaṁ, bhante".

31"Bhūtamidanti, bhikkhave, yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhan"ti?

32"Evaṁ, bhante".

33"Tadāhārasambhavanti, bhikkhave, yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhan"ti?

34"Evaṁ, bhante".


35"Tadāhāranirodhā yaṁ bhūtaṁ taṁ nirodhadhammanti, bhikkhave, yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhan"ti?

36"Evaṁ, bhante".


37"Imañce tumhe, bhikkhave, diṭṭhiṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ allīyetha kelāyetha dhanāyetha mamāyetha, api nu me tumhe, bhikkhave, kullūpamaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājāneyyātha nittharaṇatthāya no gahaṇatthāyā"ti?

38"No hetaṁ, bhante".

39"Imañce tumhe, bhikkhave, diṭṭhiṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ na allīyetha na kelāyetha na dhanāyetha na mamāyetha, api nu me tumhe, bhikkhave, kullūpamaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājāneyyātha nittharaṇatthāya no gahaṇatthāyā"ti?

40"Evaṁ, bhante".


41"Cattārome, bhikkhave, āhārā bhūtānaṁ vā sattānaṁ ṭhitiyā, sambhavesīnaṁ vā anuggahāya. Katame cattāro? Kabaḷīkāro āhāro oḷāriko vā sukhumo vā, phasso dutiyo, manosañcetanā tatiyā, viññāṇaṁ catutthaṁ.


42Ime ca, bhikkhave, cattāro āhārā kiṁnidānā kiṁsamudayā kiṁjātikā kiṁpabhavā? Ime cattāro āhārā taṇhānidānā taṇhāsamudayā taṇhājātikā taṇhāpabhavā. Taṇhā cāyaṁ, bhikkhave, kiṁnidānā kiṁsamudayā kiṁjātikā kiṁpabhavā?

43Taṇhā vedanānidānā vedanāsamudayā vedanājātikā vedanāpabhavā.

44Vedanā cāyaṁ, bhikkhave, kiṁnidānā kiṁsamudayā kiṁjātikā kiṁpabhavā? Vedanā phassanidānā phassasamudayā phassajātikā phassapabhavā.

45Phasso cāyaṁ, bhikkhave, kiṁnidāno kiṁsamudayo kiṁjātiko kiṁpabhavo? Phasso saḷāyatananidāno saḷāyatanasamudayo saḷāyatanajātiko saḷāyatanapabhavo.

46Saḷāyatanañcidaṁ, bhikkhave, kiṁnidānaṁ kiṁsamudayaṁ kiṁjātikaṁ kiṁpabhavaṁ? Saḷāyatanaṁ nāmarūpanidānaṁ nāmarūpasamudayaṁ nāmarūpajātikaṁ nāmarūpapabhavaṁ.

47Nāmarūpañcidaṁ, bhikkhave, kiṁnidānaṁ kiṁsamudayaṁ kiṁjātikaṁ kiṁpabhavaṁ? Nāmarūpaṁ viññāṇanidānaṁ viññāṇasamudayaṁ viññāṇajātikaṁ viññāṇapabhavaṁ.

48Viññāṇañcidaṁ, bhikkhave, kiṁnidānaṁ kiṁsamudayaṁ kiṁjātikaṁ kiṁpabhavaṁ? Viññāṇaṁ saṅkhāranidānaṁ saṅkhārasamudayaṁ saṅkhārajātikaṁ saṅkhārapabhavaṁ.

49Sankhārā cime, bhikkhave, kiṁnidānā kiṁsamudayā kiṁjātikā kiṁpabhavā? Sankhārā avijjānidānā avijjāsamudayā avijjājātikā avijjāpabhavā.


50Iti kho, bhikkhave, avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso, phassapaccayā vedanā, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.


51Jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇanti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; jātipaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇaṁ, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Jātipaccayā, bhante, jarāmaraṇaṁ; evaṁ no ettha hoti — jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan"ti.

52"Bhavapaccayā jātīti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; bhavapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, jāti, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Bhavapaccayā, bhante, jāti; evaṁ no ettha hoti — bhavapaccayā jātī"ti.

53"Upādānapaccayā bhavoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; upādānapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, bhavo, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Upādānapaccayā, bhante, bhavo; evaṁ no ettha hoti — upādānapaccayā bhavo"ti.

54"Taṇhāpaccayā upādānanti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ, taṇhāpaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, upādānaṁ, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Taṇhāpaccayā, bhante, upādānaṁ; evaṁ no ettha hoti — taṇhāpaccayā upādānan"ti.

55"Vedanāpaccayā taṇhāti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; vedanāpaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, taṇhā, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Vedanāpaccayā, bhante, taṇhā; evaṁ no ettha hoti — vedanāpaccayā taṇhā"ti.

56"Phassapaccayā vedanāti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; phassapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, vedanā, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Phassapaccayā, bhante, vedanā; evaṁ no ettha hoti — phassapaccayā vedanā"ti.

57"Saḷāyatanapaccayā phassoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; saḷāyatanapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, phasso, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Saḷāyatanapaccayā, bhante, phasso; evaṁ no ettha hoti — saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso"ti.

58"Nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatananti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; nāmarūpapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, saḷāyatanaṁ, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Nāmarūpapaccayā, bhante, saḷāyatanaṁ; evaṁ no ettha hoti — nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanan"ti.

59"Viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpanti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; viññāṇapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, nāmarūpaṁ, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Viññāṇapaccayā, bhante, nāmarūpaṁ; evaṁ no ettha hoti — viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpan"ti.

60"Sankhārapaccayā viññāṇanti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; saṅkhārapaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, viññāṇaṁ, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Sankhārapaccayā, bhante, viññāṇaṁ; evaṁ no ettha hoti — saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇan"ti.


61"Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārāti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; avijjāpaccayā nu kho, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Avijjāpaccayā, bhante, saṅkhārā; evaṁ no ettha hoti — avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā"ti.


62"Sādhu, bhikkhave. Iti kho, bhikkhave, tumhepi evaṁ vadetha, ahampi evaṁ vadāmi — imasmiṁ sati idaṁ hoti, imassuppādā idaṁ uppajjati, yadidaṁ — avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso, phassapaccayā vedanā, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.


63Avijjāya tveva asesavirāganirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho, nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho, saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho, phassanirodhā vedanānirodho, vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho, taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.


64Jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; jātinirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇanirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Jātinirodhā, bhante, jarāmaraṇanirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho"ti.


65"Bhavanirodhā jātinirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; bhavanirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, jātinirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti? "Bhavanirodhā, bhante, jātinirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — bhavanirodhā jātinirodho"ti.

66"Upādānanirodhā bhavanirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; upādānanirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, bhavanirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Upādānanirodhā, bhante, bhavanirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho"ti.

67"Taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; taṇhānirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, upādānanirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti? "Taṇhānirodhā, bhante, upādānanirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho"ti.

68"Vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; vedanānirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, taṇhānirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti? "Vedanānirodhā, bhante, taṇhānirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho"ti.

69"Phassanirodhā vedanānirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; phassanirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, vedanānirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti? "Phassanirodhā, bhante, vedanānirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — phassanirodhā vedanānirodho"ti.

70"Saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; saḷāyatananirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, phassanirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotīti? Saḷāyatananirodhā, bhante, phassanirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti –  saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho"ti.

71"Nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; nāmarūpanirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, saḷāyatananirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti? "Nāmarūpanirodhā, bhante, saḷāyatananirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti –  nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho"ti. "Viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; viññāṇanirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, nāmarūpanirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

72"Viññāṇanirodhā, bhante, nāmarūpanirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho"ti. "Sankhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; saṅkhāranirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, viññāṇanirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Sankhāranirodhā, bhante, viññāṇanirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti –  saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho"ti.


73"Avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodhoti iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ; avijjānirodhā nu kho, bhikkhave, saṅkhāranirodho, no vā, kathaṁ vā ettha hotī"ti?

"Avijjānirodhā, bhante, saṅkhāranirodho; evaṁ no ettha hoti — avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho"ti.


74"Sādhu, bhikkhave. Iti kho, bhikkhave, tumhepi evaṁ vadetha, ahampi evaṁ vadāmi — imasmiṁ asati idaṁ na hoti, imassa nirodhā idaṁ nirujjhati, yadidaṁ — avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho, nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho, saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho, phassanirodhā vedanānirodho, vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho, taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.


75Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā pubbantaṁ vā paṭidhāveyyātha: ‘ahesumha nu kho mayaṁ atītamaddhānaṁ, nanu kho ahesumha atītamaddhānaṁ, kiṁ nu kho ahesumha atītamaddhānaṁ, kathaṁ nu kho ahesumha atītamaddhānaṁ, kiṁ hutvā kiṁ ahesumha nu kho mayaṁ atītamaddhānan’"ti?

76"No hetaṁ, bhante".


77"Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā aparantaṁ vā paṭidhāveyyātha — bhavissāma nu kho mayaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ, nanu kho bhavissāma anāgatamaddhānaṁ, kiṁ nu kho bhavissāma anāgatamaddhānaṁ, kathaṁ nu kho bhavissāma anāgatamaddhānaṁ, kiṁ hutvā kiṁ bhavissāma nu kho mayaṁ anāgatamaddhānan"ti?

78"No hetaṁ, bhante".

79"Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā etarahi vā paccuppannamaddhānaṁ ajjhattaṁ kathaṅkathī assatha — ahaṁ nu khosmi, no nu khosmi, kiṁ nu khosmi, kathaṁ nu khosmi, ayaṁ nu kho satto kuto āgato, so kuhiṁ gāmī bhavissatī"ti?


80"No hetaṁ, bhante".

81"Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā evaṁ vadeyyātha — satthā no garu, satthugāravena ca mayaṁ evaṁ vademā"ti?

82"No hetaṁ, bhante".


83"Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā evaṁ vadeyyātha — samaṇo evamāha, samaṇā ca nāma mayaṁ evaṁ vademā"ti?

84"No hetaṁ, bhante".

85"Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā aññaṁ satthāraṁ uddiseyyāthā"ti?


86"No hetaṁ, bhante".

87"Api nu tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ jānantā evaṁ passantā yāni tāni puthusamaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ vata kotūhalamaṅgalāni tāni sārato paccāgaccheyyāthā"ti?

88"No hetaṁ, bhante".


89"Nanu, bhikkhave, yadeva tumhākaṁ sāmaṁ ñātaṁ sāmaṁ diṭṭhaṁ sāmaṁ viditaṁ, tadeva tumhe vadethā"ti.

90"Evaṁ, bhante".


91"Sādhu, bhikkhave, upanītā kho me tumhe, bhikkhave, iminā sandiṭṭhikena dhammena akālikena ehipassikena opaneyyikena paccattaṁ veditabbena viññūhi. Sandiṭṭhiko ayaṁ, bhikkhave, dhammo akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhi — iti yantaṁ vuttaṁ, idametaṁ paṭicca vuttanti.

92Tiṇṇaṁ kho pana, bhikkhave, sannipātā gabbhassāvakkanti hoti. Idha mātāpitaro ca sannipatitā honti, mātā ca na utunī hoti, gandhabbo ca na paccupaṭṭhito hoti, neva tāva gabbhassāvakkanti hoti. Idha mātāpitaro ca sannipatitā honti, mātā ca utunī hoti, gandhabbo ca na paccupaṭṭhito hoti, neva tāva gabbhassāvakkanti hoti. ato ca kho, bhikkhave, mātāpitaro ca sannipatitā honti, mātā ca utunī hoti, gandhabbo ca paccupaṭṭhito hoti — evaṁ tiṇṇaṁ sannipātā gabbhassāvakkanti hoti.

Tamenaṁ, bhikkhave, mātā nava vā dasa vā māse gabbhaṁ kucchinā pariharati mahatā saṁsayena garubhāraṁ. Tamenaṁ, bhikkhave, mātā navannaṁ vā dasannaṁ vā māsānaṁ accayena vijāyati mahatā saṁsayena garubhāraṁ. Tamenaṁ jātaṁ samānaṁ sakena lohitena poseti. Lohitañhetaṁ, bhikkhave, ariyassa vinaye yadidaṁ mātuthaññaṁ.

Sa kho so, bhikkhave, kumāro vuddhimanvāya indriyānaṁ paripākamanvāya yāni tāni kumārakānaṁ kīḷāpanakāni tehi kīḷati, seyyathidaṁ — vaṅkakaṁ ghaṭikaṁ mokkhacikaṁ ciṅgulakaṁ pattāḷhakaṁ rathakaṁ dhanukaṁ.


93Sa kho so, bhikkhave, kumāro vuddhimanvāya indriyānaṁ paripākamanvāya pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti — cakkhuviññeyyehi rūpehi iṭṭhehi kantehi manāpehi piyarūpehi kāmūpasaṁhitehi rajanīyehi, sotaviññeyyehi saddehi … ghānaviññeyyehi gandhehi … jivhāviññeyyehi rasehi … kāyaviññeyyehi phoṭṭhabbehi iṭṭhehi kantehi manāpehi piyarūpehi kāmūpasaṁhitehi rajanīyehi.


94So cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe sārajjati, appiyarūpe rūpe byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso. Tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti — yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhaṁ samāpanno yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā, so taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. Yā vedanāsu nandī tadupādānaṁ, tassupādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.

Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … pe … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … pe … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme sārajjati, appiyarūpe dhamme byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso. Tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti — yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhaṁ samāpanno yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā, so taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa taṁ vedanaṁ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. Yā vedanāsu nandī tadupādānaṁ, tassupādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.


95Idha, bhikkhave, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā. So imaṁ lokaṁ sadevakaṁ samārakaṁ sabrahmakaṁ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṁ pajaṁ sadevamanussaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṁ deseti ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ sātthaṁ sabyañjanaṁ; kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ pakāseti.

Taṁ dhammaṁ suṇāti gahapati vā gahapatiputto vā aññatarasmiṁ vā kule paccājāto. So taṁ dhammaṁ sutvā tathāgate saddhaṁ paṭilabhati. So tena saddhāpaṭilābhena samannāgato iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘sambādho gharāvāso rajāpatho, abbhokāso pabbajjā. Nayidaṁ sukaraṁ agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā ekantaparipuṇṇaṁ ekantaparisuddhaṁ saṅkhalikhitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ carituṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā, kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā, agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan’"ti. So aparena samayena appaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya, mahantaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya, appaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya, mahantaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya, kesamassuṁ ohāretvā, kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā, agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati.

96So evaṁ pabbajito samāno bhikkhūnaṁ sikkhāsājīvasamāpanno pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati.

97Adinnādānaṁ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti, dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharati.

98Abrahmacariyaṁ pahāya brahmacārī hoti, ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā.

99Musāvādaṁ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato hoti, saccavādī saccasandho theto paccayiko avisaṁvādako lokassa.

100Pisuṇaṁ vācaṁ pahāya pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti — ito sutvā na amutra akkhātā imesaṁ bhedāya, amutra vā sutvā na imesaṁ akkhātā amūsaṁ bhedāya. Iti bhinnānaṁ vā sandhātā, sahitānaṁ vā anuppadātā samaggārāmo samaggarato samagganandī, samaggakaraṇiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti.

101Pharusaṁ vācaṁ pahāya pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti — yā sā vācā nelā kaṇṇasukhā pemanīyā hadayaṅgamā porī bahujanakantā bahujanamanāpā tathārūpiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti.

102Samphappalāpaṁ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti, kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī, nidhānavatiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā kālena, sāpadesaṁ pariyantavatiṁ atthasaṁhitaṁ.


103So bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato hoti, ekabhattiko hoti rattūparato, virato vikālabhojanā. Naccagītavāditavisūkadassanā paṭivirato hoti, mālāgandhavilepanadhāraṇamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti, uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato hoti, jātarūparajatapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, āmakadhaññapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, āmakamaṁsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, itthikumārikapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, dāsidāsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, ajeḷakapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, kukkuṭasūkarapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, hatthigavāssavaḷavapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, khettavatthupaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti, dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogā paṭivirato hoti, kayavikkayā paṭivirato hoti, tulākūṭakaṁsakūṭamānakūṭā paṭivirato hoti, ukkoṭanavañcananikatisāciyogā paṭivirato hoti, chedanavadhabandhanaviparāmosaālopasahasākārā paṭivirato hoti.

104So santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati samādāyeva pakkamati. Seyyathāpi nāma pakkhī sakuṇo yena yeneva ḍeti sapattabhārova ḍeti; evameva bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena, kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati samādāyeva pakkamati. So iminā ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato ajjhattaṁ anavajjasukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti.


105So cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṁ, cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … pe … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … pe … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī.

Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ manindriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati manindriyaṁ manindriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. So iminā ariyena indriyasaṁvarena samannāgato ajjhattaṁ abyāsekasukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti.


106So abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

107So iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato, imāya ca ariyāya santuṭṭhiyā samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena indriyasaṁvarena samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena satisampajaññena samannāgato, vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati — araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ.

So pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya, parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. So abhijjhaṁ loke pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharati, abhijjhāya cittaṁ parisodheti; byāpādapadosaṁ pahāya abyāpannacitto viharati, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī, byāpādapadosā cittaṁ parisodheti; thinamiddhaṁ pahāya vigatathinamiddho viharati ālokasaññī, sato sampajāno, thinamiddhā cittaṁ parisodheti; uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahāya anuddhato viharati ajjhattaṁ vūpasantacitto, uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṁ parisodheti; vicikicchaṁ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati akathaṁkathī kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchāya cittaṁ parisodheti.


108So ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Puna caparaṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ … pe … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ … pe … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

109So cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe na sārajjati, appiyarūpe rūpe na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso. Tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti — yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhavippahīno yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti, sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā, so taṁ vedanaṁ nābhinandati nābhivadati nājjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa taṁ vedanaṁ anabhinandato anabhivadato anajjhosāya tiṭṭhato yā vedanāsu nandī sā nirujjhati. Tassa nandīnirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti.

Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.


Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … pe … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … pe … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme na sārajjati, appiyarūpe dhamme na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti — yatthassa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

So evaṁ anurodhavirodhavippahīno yaṁ kiñci vedanaṁ vedeti, sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā, so taṁ vedanaṁ nābhinandati nābhivadati nājjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa taṁ vedanaṁ anabhinandato anabhivadato anajjhosāya tiṭṭhato yā vedanāsu nandī sā nirujjhati. Tassa nandīnirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti.

Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti.

Imaṁ kho me tumhe, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena taṇhāsaṅkhayavimuttiṁ dhāretha, sātiṁ pana bhikkhuṁ kevaṭṭaputtaṁ mahātaṇhājālataṇhāsaṅghāṭappaṭimukkan"ti.


110Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhayasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ.